ETHIOPIA GAVERMENT  

 

Country name:

conventional long form: Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

conventional short form: Ethiopia

local long form: Ityop'iya Federalawi Demokrasiyawi Ripeblik

local short form: Ityop'iya

former: Abyssinia, Italian East Africa

abbreviation: FDRE

 

Government type:

federal republic

 

Capital:

name: Addis Ababa

geographic coordinates: 9 02 N, 38 42 E

time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

 

Administrative divisions

9 ethnically based states (kililoch, singular - kilil) and 2 self-governing administrations* (astedaderoch, singular - astedader); Adis Abeba* (Addis Ababa), Afar, Amara (Amhara), Binshangul Gumuz, Dire Dawa*, Gambela Hizboch (Gambela Peoples), Hareri Hizb (Harari People), Oromiya (Oromia), Sumale (Somali), Tigray, Ye Debub Biheroch Bihereseboch na Hizboch (Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples)

 

Independence:

oldest independent country in Africa and one of the oldest in the world - at least 2,000 years (may be traced to the Aksumite Kingdom, which coalesced in the first centuries B.C.)

 

National holiday:

National Day (defeat of MENGISTU regime), 28 May (1991)

 

Constitution

ratified 8 December 1994, effective 22 August 1995

 

Legal system:

based on civil law; currently transitional mix of national and regional courts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

 

Suffrage:

18 years of age; universal

 

Executive branch:

chief of state: President GIRMA Woldegiorgis (since 8 October 2001)

head of government: Prime Minister MELES Zenawi (since August 1995)

cabinet: Council of Ministers as provided for in the December 1994 constitution; ministers selected by the prime minister and approved by the House of People's Representatives.

(For more information visit the World Leaders website  )

elections: president elected by the House of People's Representatives for a six-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 9 October 2007 (next to be held in October 2013); prime minister designated by the party in power following legislative elections

election results: GIRMA Woldegiorgis elected president; percent of vote by the House of People's Representatives - 79%

 

Legislative branch:

bicameral Parliament consists of the House of Federation (or upper chamber responsible for interpreting the constitution and federal-regional issues) (108 seats; members chosen by state assemblies to serve five-year terms) and the House of People's Representatives (or lower chamber responsible for passing legislation) (547 seats; members directly elected by popular vote from single-member districts to serve five-year terms)

elections: last held on 23 May 2010 (next to be held in 2015)

election results: percent of vote - NA; seats by party - EPRDF 499, SPDP 24, BGPDP 9, ANDP 8, GPUDM 3, HNL 1, FORUM 1, APDO 1, independent 1

 

Judicial branch:

Federal Supreme Court (the president and vice president of the Federal Supreme Court are recommended by the prime minister and appointed by the House of People's Representatives; for other federal judges, the prime minister submits to the House of People's Representatives for appointment candidates selected by the Federal Judicial Administrative Council)

 

 

Political parties and leaders:

Afar National Democratic Party or ANDP [Mohammed KEDIR]; Arena Tigray; Argoba People's Democratic Organization or APDO; Benishangul Gumuz People's Democratic Party or BGPDP [Mulualem BESSE]; Coalition for Unity and Democratic Party or CUDP; Ethiopian Federal Democatic Forum or FORUM (a UDJ-led 8-party alliance established for the 2010 parliamentary elections); Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front or EPRDF; Gambella Peoples Unity Democratic Movement or GPUDM [Umod UBONG]; Gurage Nationalities' Democratic Movement or GNDM; Harari National League or HNL [Murad ABDULHADI]; Oromo Federalist Democratic Movement or OFDM [BULCHA Demeksa]; Oromo People's Congress or OPC [IMERERA Gudina]; Somali Democratic Alliance Forces or SODAF; Somali People's Democratic Party or SPDP; United Ethiopian Democratic Forces or UEDF [BEYENE Petros]; Unity for Democracy and Justice or UDJ [Birtukan MEDEKSA, currently imprisoned]

 

Political pressure groups and leaders:

Ethiopian People's Patriotic Front or EPPF; Ogaden National Liberation Front or ONLF; Oromo Liberation Front or OLF [DAOUD Ibsa]

 

International organization participation:

ACP, AfDB, AU, COMESA, FAO, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, MINURCAT, NAM, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMIL, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)

 

Flag description

three equal horizontal bands of green (top), yellow, and red, with a yellow pentagram and single yellow rays emanating from the angles between the points on a light blue disk centered on the three bands; green represents hope and the fertility of the land, yellow symbolizes justice and harmony, while red stands for sacrifice and heroism in the defense of the land; the blue of the disk symbolizes peace and the pentagram represents the unity and equality of the nationalities and peoples of Ethiopia

note: Ethiopia is the oldest independent country in Africa, and the three main colors of her flag (adopted ca. 1895) were so often adopted by other African countries upon independence that they became known as the Pan-African colors; the emblem in the center of the current flag was added in 1996

 

National anthem:

name: "Whedefit Gesgeshi Woude Henate Ethiopia" (March Forward, Dear Mother Ethiopia)

lyrics/music: DEREJE Melaku Mengesha/SOLOMON Lulu

note: adopted 1992

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